The biggest factor that allowed for mass production was the introduction of factories. Factories are buildings that are designed specifically for production, with machines that are large enough to produce large quantities of goods and with workers who are specialized in particular tasks. With the factory system, production became much more efficient and Goods could be produced much more cheaply.
Another factor that led to mass production was the development of new technology, such as the steam engine and the power loom. The steam engine, in particular, allowed for the development of the assembly line, which further increased efficiency and output.