The RFID chip embedded in a US passport is protected by a Faraday cage, a grounded metallic layer which helps protect the chip from damage. The passport also includes additional structural protection to guard the chip from any physical damage. So overall, it is very difficult for the RFID chip in a US passport to get damaged.
However, RFID chips are susceptible to damage from being exposed to high intensity magnetic fields or in specific scenarios like power lines, electrical wiring or energy sources. If exposed to such fields, the RFID chip can become unreadable and will need to be re-programmed. The US State Department offers a very detailed guide on protecting your passport’s RFID chip from damage which you can consult for more information:
In general, if taken reasonable care of, the RFID chip in a US passport should not be easily damaged. To be extra careful, I would recommend keeping your passport in a special RFID blocking pouch, which can effectively protect the RFID chip from any outside interference.